Human evolution and migrations

Annual log contents – click on year to download PDF

2000 Coastal migration; mtDNA and Y-DNA; modern human ancestry; Cro-Magnon migration; Sasquatch buttock print.

2001 “Out-of-Africa” hypothesis; “Multi-regional” hypothesis; human genome SNPs; Orrorin; human family tree; migration; Eugene Dubois; influence of impacts, Adfrican climate history; Châtelperronian culture; Neanderthals; teeth, length of childhood.

2002 Review of human evolution; Homo erectus; Homo ergaster; phyllogeography ; “Out-of-Africa” hypothesis; origin of tools; Dmanisi, Georgia; Sahelanthropus tchadensis; Orrorin tugenensis; evolutionary predestination (teleology).

2003 Lake Mungo human; start of ancient DNA studies; genetic legacy of Genghis; human gut bacteria (microbiome); Neanderthal footprints; distorted hominin fossils; chimpanzee genome; early date for Sterkfontein hominins; migrations and modern languages; earliest anatomically modern human (AMH); excarnation; ‘Big Man’ hypothesis; Dmanisi Homo erectus.

2004 Calibration of 14C dating; jaw muscles and brain growth; hominin teeth; early Chinese hominins, stone tools; Neanderthal child development; Institute for Creation Research spoofed; early use of fire in Levant; human cannibalism; ‘Granny Factor’ hypothesis; Homo floresiensis; human lice; genealogy perils; Neanderthal extinction; endurance running in humans; rock art.

2005 Human lice and interbreeding; Homo floresiensis; earliest AMH; Homo erectus evidence for altruism; migration waves; Bab el Mandab; climate change and human evolution; DNA ‘founder’ mutations; evolutionary bottle necks; culture and human evolution; earliest migration to northern Europe; vegetation changes.

2006 Bush-like hominin evolution, cladogenesis; Ardepithecus ramidus; Australopithecus anamensis; Australopithecus afarensis; ancient dentistry; Homo erectus tool making; hominin-chimpanzee common ancestor; Homo floresiensis; migration, return to Africa; Australopithecus afarensis child; African climate change and human evolution; Asian migration; 14C dating calibration; Neanderthal genome pending; australopithecine’s diet.

2007 Helicobacter pylori and AMH migration; AMH-Neanderthal hybrid fossils; upright posture; early gorilla fossil teeth; human morphometry and evolutionary bottlenecks; Homo floresiensis; early art; migration summary; Neanderthal range; Dmanisi humans.

2008 Neanderthal pigmentation; rate of human evolution; primate last common ancestor; humans in the Americas; Clovis First hypothesis; Orrorin tugenensis gait; earliest colonisation of Europe; paranthropoid diet; Doggerland; earliest evidence for use of fire.

2009 Migration and culture in Africa; hominin chile development; ‘Granny effect’; bifacial axe and culture; Levallois technique; body painting; dating Chinese Homo erectus; Homo ergaster footprints; modern African’s genetics; controversially old Mexican footprints; Homo floresiensis; fire and tool making; Neanderthal mtDNA; Ardipithecus ramidus roundup.

2010 Early AMH migrations; Toba ash; Neanderthal body ornaments; Neanderthal genome; human-Neanderthal hybridisation, human functional genes with Neanderthal origins; Denisovan genome; Australopithecus sediba; Australopithecus afarensis sexual dimorphism; earliest migration to northern Europe; hominin coastal refuges; earliest stone tool use.

2011 Neanderthal infant fossil; AMH in China; terrain and human evolution; Bab el Mandab; Palaeolithic stone tools in UAE; migration across Straits of Gibraltar; Neanderthal diet, gait and culture; dental plaque analysis; South Indian Acheulean tools; AMH-Denisovan interbreeding;  Clovis First hypothesis; australopithecine and paranthropoid sexual dispersion patterns; Arctic Neanderthals; carbon isotopes and hominin diets/ecosystems; 1.76 Ma age for earliest Acheulean tools; Australopithecus sediba roundup; AMH-archaic human hybridisation in Africa; inherited immune systems, ancient Australian DNA; Blombos cave cosmetics; water sources for human migration; precise dating of European AMH migrants.

2012 Peculiar AMH fossils from Younger Dryas times of China; early hominin fossil feet; earliest use of fire; archaic humans of Atapuerca, Spain; Geissenclösterle; Aurignacian archaeology; Chatelperronian tool industry, cave art; hominin diets; Neanderthal self-medication; surviving 39 ka Campi Flegrei eruption; Homo habilis; human lice; revised human mutation rate; molecular clock; microlith composite tools; Toba ash, calibrating late Pleistocene.

2013 Hominin review; Oreopithecus bambolii; human ‘nature’; hybridisation review; Australopithecus sediba; Toba ash, 74 ka global winter; Homo erectus, throwing ability; European Miocene faunal exchange; common paternal and maternal human ancestors; Y- and mtDNA; migration routes; Dmanisi skulls; early human evolution; first Americans, dual ancestry; 400 ka human mtDNA; Denisovans.

2014 Neanderthal genomes; inbreeding; hybridisation; 1.0 to 0.78 Ma archaic human footprints in Britain; Homo antecessor; timing of Neanderthal extinction; Châtelperronian, Mousterian stone tools; early, multiple AMH migration from Africa; Arabian wet episodes and human migration; early figurative art in Indonesia; Homo floresiensis; Homo erectus art; ‘domestication’ of humans.

2015 Hominin hand bones, precision grip; AMH and Neanderthal co-occupation of Levant; Arabian wet episodes; 2.8 to 2.75 Ma Homo; 3.3 Ma stone tools; 3 co-existing hominins in Afar; Homo naledi; possible deliberate burial; 400 ka mtDNA from archaic Spanish human – early Neanderthal; timing of Neanderthal-Denisovan split; earliest AMH to reach China; 4.5 ka migration back to Africa.

2016 Neanderthal review; inheritance of Neanderthal functional genes by modern humans; Neanderthal-Denisovan hybridisation; Homo floresiensis 60 ka minimum age; Neanderthal circular cavern structures; climatic conditions and early hominin evolution; ‘Lucy’ killed by fall, refinement of Out of Africa; estimated global arrival times of AMH; human population densities 60 ka ago; Châtelperronian culture and Neanderthals; tree climbing by australopithecines; loss of human penis bone (baculum) through monogamy.

2017 DNA in dental plaque (calculus); diet, disease, medication in Neanderthals and sharing their oral bacteria with AMH; possible Chinese fossil Denisovans; early colonisation of North America; Beringia; Neanderthal and Denisovan  DNA found in cave sediments, pre-AMH visits to North America; . Homo naledi dated at only ~280 ka; origin of AMH ~315 ka; earliest occupation of Australia at 65 ka; pre-Toba AMH in Sumatra; bipedal animal footprints in 5.7 Ma Cretan sediments; Neanderthal child development similar to AMH; genetic archaeology roundup; early human dispersal through Asia.

2018 Modern humans first leave Africa; earliest human in Americas; Neanderthal art; Toba eruption; cultural revolution in Kenya; Neanderthals on TV; early hominins on Philippines; human-induced mass extinction; earliest humans in China; Neanderthal-Denisovan hybrid; modern human evolution in Africa; Homo floresiensis update; early art in Africa; earliest human in Tibet.

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